Headings & References
last update:29 July 2006

HIERARCHY OF HEADINGS

If fewer than five levels of headings are needed, any of the following may be omitted, but the ones used must follow this order.
  1. Centered, underlined or boldface, capitalized
  2. Centered, not underlined or in bold, capitalized
  3. Left side heading, underlined or boldface, caps-headline
  4. Left side heading, not underlined or bold, capitalized sentence style - eg: The Gospel as it related to Jesus.
  5. Run into paragraph & underlined or in boldface, cap. sentence style eg: The gospel legalized in the Church. The gospel that....

WHAT NEEDS A REFERENCE?

Students often struggle with when and how to document outside materials they incorporate into research papers. The rules are new and sornetirnes confusing when first encountered. To provide some practice applying the principles, here are some examples that are at the same time familiar, perhaps a tad bit funny, and very instructive.

Rules
  1. Do not document:
    1. Your own ideas about what you read
    2. Minor details
    3. Your own editorializing
  2. Do document:
    1. All quotations
    2. All paraphrases
    3. All ideas you learned from someone else
    4. Facts from the reading that you are using to make an argument concerning how to interpret the text
    5. Segments of the text that support the argument you are trying to make or provide the grounds for your editorial remarks
    6. Cases where you are not sure whether or not they require documentation
  3. Plagiarism: What It is and How to Recognize and Avoid It
Examples

Evaluate each of the following statements about "Cinderella." Which statements should be documented and which do not need to be? Which of the reasons above provide(s) the best grounds for why that statement should or should not be documented?

  1. I think the Prince saved Cinderella in the nick of time.
  2. The eldest sister wanted to wear her French-trimmed, red velvet suit to the ball.
  3. Cinderella was a young girl of unparalleled goodness and sweetness of temper.
  4. Cinderella and the Prince fell in love at the ball.
  5. The stepmother is an obvious paranoid.
  6. The Godmother changed “six mice into six horses, a rat into a fine coachman, and six lizards into footmen.”
  7. In the end, Cinderella forgives her sisters and finds them husbands.
  8. The stepmother's major personality traits are pride and haughtiness.
  9. Cinderella leaves the ball just before midnight.
  10. The first persons to try on the glass slipper were the princesses and the duchesses.
  11. When Cinderella asks to go to the ball, the sisters claim, "It would make the people laugh."
  12. Cinderella was a good counselor because she had excellent ideas, advised others for the best, and willingly proffered her services.

SAMPLE CITATIONS & BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCES

Note that state abbreviations are the older, fuller abbreviations (not the two-letter ones currently used for surface mail), and that consecutive page numbers and years are indicated with an en-dash rather than a hyphen. Also, the use of ff to indicate page numbers, chapters, or verses in a series is no longer permitted; inclusive page, chapter, or verse numbers should be used.

Footnotes
Bibliographic References

Other resources for how to document your sources: