Instructional Design Models

Dr. David Shutkin


Beginning the Process Instructional Design



Instructional design models generally tend to be linear, step by step guides directing the designer through a series of stages deemed necessary to produce effective instructional units.


The theory of Instructional Design


Instructional design in its most commonly used form is a systematic methodology for designing and developing educational material for any medium. Instructional design theories and models are informed by the theory of other disciplines such as Communications, Psychology, and Human-Computer Interaction.


Instructional Design Models



An instructional design model gives structure and meaning to an I.D. problem, enabling the designer to negotiate her design task with a semblance of conscious understanding. Models help us to visualize the problem, to break it down into discrete, manageable units.


Learning Technologies Service



Selecting Instructional Design Models

*Several elements can be used from more than one model.

Instructional Models are guidelines or sets of strategies on which the approaches to teaching by instructors are based. Effective instructional models are based on learning theories. Learning Theories describe the ways that theorists believe people learn new ideas and concepts. Often, they explain the relationship between information we already know and the new information we are trying to learn.


Big Dog's ISD Page


So, why ISD? Simply stated, this process provides a means for sound decision making to determine the who, what, when, where, why, and how of training. The concept of a system approach to training is based on obtaining an overall view of the training process. It is characterized by an orderly process for gathering and analyzing collective and individual performance requirements, and by the ability to respond to identified training needs.


Instructional Design in eLearning



Many definitions exist for instructional design - all of them are an expression of underlying philosophies and view points of what is involved in the learning process. Distinguishing the underlying philosophy of learning (in terms of: How does learning occur? What factors influence learning? What is the role of memory? How does transfer occur? What types of learning are best explained by the theory?


ISD Knowledge Base / Instructional Design & Development



Instructional Systems Design (ISD) Models are the systematic guidelines instructional designers follow in order to create a workshop, a course, a curriculum, an instructional program, or a training session. ISD Models are visualized representations of an instructional design process, showing the main elements or phases, and their relationships. More commonly known by their names, Dick & Carey Model, ADDIE Model, Kemp Model, ICARE Model, and ASSURE Model, these models share three major activities: analysis, strategy development, and evaluation.


Characteristics of the Constructivist-Interpretivist Instructional Design Model



Constructivist Instructional Design (CID) Process is Recursive, Non-linear, and sometimes Chaotic Development is recursive or iterative; you will address the same issues such as learner analysis and instructional objectives many times. Development is also non-liner. There is no required beginning task that must be completed before all others. Some problems, improvements, or changes will only be discovered in the context of use. Plan for recursive evaluations by users and by experts. Plan for false starts and redesigns as well as revisions.


Solomon, D. L. (2005). Crossing Cultural Corridors: From Philosophy to Practice. Educational Technology, 45(2), 25-34.



The writer discusses four areas of theory and practice that are encompassed in a postmodern philosophy of instructional design. These areas are instructional design as a dialogical and critical process that welcomes a blending of theoretical orientations and approaches; instructional messages that reflect multiple representations of content and knowledge; instructional strategies that are focused on meaning making in sociocultural contexts and include dialogue, reflective practice, and multiple delivery methods and tools; and learner characteristics that stress anthropological variables that may include distribution and relationship of peoples, environmental and social relations, and culture.


Gros, B. (2002). Knowledge Construction and Technology. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 11(4), 323-343.



The main goal of this article is to offer a current analysis of the research about the design of virtual environments of learning from a constructivist approach. The great proliferation of virtual environments for learning in different levels and educational areas has contributed to an increase of research about the most appropriate instructional design. Constructivism is currently a common label for multiple approaches.


Herrington, J., &  Standen, P. (2000). Moving from an instructivist to a constructivist multimedia learning environment. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 9(3), 195-205.



This article describes the transformation of a multimedia program, designed to teach research skills to business students, from one based on an "instructivist" model to one underpinned with a constructivist philosophy. The revised program uses the theory of situated learning as a framework for the instructional design, and introduces into the learning environment elements such as: an authentic context, an authentic activity, multiple perspectives, expert opinion, collaboration, and opportunities for articulation and reflection.