THE LIFE OF JOHN CARROLL

JOHN CARROLL (1735-1815)

This portrait, a linocut by Charles Zarobila, is based on a painting of John Carroll attributed by family tradition to Charles Willson Peale, c. 1776. In this picture, Carroll is about 40 years of age.



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EARLY LIFE AND EDUCATION

John Carroll was born on January 8, 1735, in Upper Marlboro, Maryland, the son of Daniel and Eleanor (Darnall) Carroll. Carroll came from a prominent colonial family; his father was a successful Maryland merchant, and his mother, a highly educated woman, was an heiress in one of Maryland's richest families. From 1746 to 1748, Carroll attended Bohemia Manor, a Jesuit academy in northern Maryland. In July of 1748, he went to St. Omer College in French Flanders, a school run by English Jesuits. In 1753, he entered the Jesuit Novitiate at Watten, Flanders, and took his first religious vows in 1755. Also at Watten, from 1756 to 1757, Carroll studied literature. At the Jesuit college in Liege, between 1757 and 1760, Carroll studied philosophy. He was ordained to the priesthood in 1769 and took his final vows as a Jesuit in 1771.


JOHN CARROLL'S MOTHER

This portrait of Eleanor Darnell Carroll (1703/4-1796) was painted by John Wollaston.


JOHN CARROLL'S BIRTHPLACE

John Carroll was born in this house in Upper Marlboro, Maryland, on January 8, 1735.


EARLY MINISTRY IN AMERICA

Carroll returned to America in 1774, living at his family home in Rock Creek, Maryland. In 1776, the Continental Congress asked Carroll to be part of a commission, which included Benjamin Franklin, to enlist the aid of Canada in the cause of the American Revolution.

Also in 1776, Carroll built St. John's Chapel in Forest Glen, Maryland, as a base for his ministry. On June 9, 1784, Carroll was made the head of the missions in the provinces of the United States. During the next six years in this role, he watched over his territory and looked after the interests of Catholics in America.


Sir:--

One of your correspondents sends you a fabricated history of a Cardinal Tulone, who never existed, and which you inserted in a former Magazine; this history he enriched with inflammatory comments; but he had neither justice nor candour enough to undeceive your readers by informing them that the whole was a malicious fable. . . . When you condescend to relate events of modern times, you might, once in a month, make selection of a few articles of undoubted credit and general importance, and not deal out the malicious and mischief-making forgeries of persecuting Europeans. Thanks to genuine spirit and Christianity, the United States have banished intolerance from their system of government, and many of them have done the justice to every denomination of Christians, which ought to be done to them in all, of placing them on the same footing of citizenship, and conferring an equal right of participation in national privileges. Freedom and independence, acquired by the united efforts, and cemented with the mingled blood of Protestant and Catholic fellow-citizens, should be equally enjoyed by all. . . .


ADDRESS TO CATHOLICS

This is the first page of John Carroll's ADDRESS TO THE ROMAN CATHOLICS OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, published in 1784. In this book Carroll defended the Church in America against the teaching of the apostate Jesuit Charles Wharton.

EULOGY ON WASHINGTON

This is a title-page facsimile of the published text of John Carroll's eulogy on George Washington. Carroll delivered his memorial address on February 22, 1800, in St. Peter's Church, Baltimore. One biographer called the speech the "best specimen of Carroll's eloquence."


OLD ST. PETER'S CHURCH

This church, located in Baltimore, Maryland, is where John Carroll delivered his eulogy on George Washington.


GEORGETOWN COLLEGE--ORIGINAL BUILDING

This school is perhaps the most famous of the many educational institutions founded by John Carroll. According to the institution's founding documents, it was created "for the education of youth and the perpetuity of the body of the clergy in this country."


SEAL OF BISHOP JOHN CARROLL

Pius VI named John Carroll the first bishop of the United States in 1788.


BASILICA OF THE ASSUMPTION, CATHEDRAL OF THE SEE OF BALTIMORE

The remains of John Carroll were placed here in 1824.


POSTAGE STAMP

The Vatican issued this postage stamp to commemorate the bicentennial of the Catholic hierarchy in America.


GILBERT STUART PORTRAIT

This portrait, the most well known picture of Archbishop John Carroll, was painted by American artist Gilbert Stuart, c. 1803-05. It is located at Georgetown University.





ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The linocut of John Carroll was used by permission of Charles Zarobila.

The pictures of "John Carroll's Birthplace," "Old St. Peter's Church," "Georgetown College," and the "Basilica of the Assumption" were used by permission of the The Catholic Review , Baltimore, Maryland. These pictures have been reproduced in The John Carroll Papers (Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press, 1976.)




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