Professors: C. H. Wideman, J. R. Johansen; Associate Professors: J. L. Lissemore (Chair), G. M. Kinebrew, C. D. Anthony, M. P. Martin, C. A. Sheil; Assistant Professors: R. Drenovsky, E. Johnson; Visiting Assistant Professor: K. Lee, W. Mayer
Students must achieve a minimum 2.5 GPA in BL 155-160 to be considered for formal acceptance into the biology or environmental science majors, or a 2.5 GPA in BL 155-158 and BL 213 for formal acceptance into the cell and molecular biology major. Also required for all three majors are specific courses in chemistry, mathematics, and other subjects. Students should be aware that some post-baccalaureate degree programs require calculus and/or physics for admission. Students should discuss options with their advisors before making course decisions.
Biology encompasses the study of all organisms, and our curriculum provides students a sound knowledge base in: 1) cellular and molecular biology; 2) organismal biology; and 3) evolutionary biology, ecology, and biodiversity.
Through coursework and mentored student research, the faculty emphasize the importance of evolution in biological phenomena, the role of the environment in biological interactions, and ethical behavior in scientific endeavors. These experiences: 1) promote strong critical thinking and analytical skills; 2) develop strong writing skills; 3) provide hands-on experience in biological techniques; and 4) promote creative scientific thought.
The academic programs in biology prepare students for graduate and professional school, as well as for careers in the public and private sectors. Mentoring through academic advising, research, and internship opportunities prepares our students for future scholarship and social and civic involvement.
The Biology major is intended for students seeking careers in medicine, the allied health professions, research, teaching, and other vocations requiring a broad background in biology and chemistry. This major also prepares students for graduate programs in biology and related disciplines.
The Environmental Science major is intended for students seeking careers in environmental and ecological fields, including environmental consulting, government, parks and recreation, teaching, research, environmental law, and other areas requiring strength in environmental science. This major also prepares students for graduate programs in ecology and environmental science.
The Cell and Molecular Biology major is intended for students desiring careers in medicine, biomedical research, biotechnology, pharmacy, healthcare, teaching, and other professions requiring a strong foundation in cellular and molecular processes. This major also prepares students for graduate programs in fields such as cell biology, molecular biology, genetics, microbiology, pharmacology, and biochemistry.
Major and Minor Requirements
Major in Biology: 34 credit hours of biology, including at least one 400-level course (excluding BL 478), plus 20-25 credit hours of supporting courses in other departments. Courses are to be chosen with advisor approval and always include applicable laboratory corequisites. CH 431 or 435-436 will be accepted as 4 credits toward the 34 credit-hour requirement.
BL 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160; plus at least one course from each of the following areas: A) molecule-to-cell: BL 213, 301, 310, 459, 465, or 470; B) cell-to-organism: BL 230 and 231, 254, 308, 350, 360, 410, 420, 450, 471, or 475; C) organism-to-biosphere: BL 206, 222, 224, 255, 331, 370, 421, 424, 425, 435, 440, 442, 444, or 447.
Required Support Courses: CH 141-144 (or 151H, 153); CH 221-224: MT 135, and MT 228.
Minor in Biology: 21 credit hours of biology, including BL 155-160 and three 200-400 level courses (including at least one laboratory course).
Strongly Recommended: CH 141-144, 221-224
Major in Environmental Science: 35-38 credit hours of biology, plus 23-28 credit hours of supporting courses in other departments. Courses are to be chosen with advisor approval and always include applicable laboratory corequisites. Required courses:
BL 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 222, 224 or 435, 331, 424 or 447, 444; plus two courses from: BL 206, 224, 255, 275, 399, 421, 424, 425, 435, 442, 446, 447.
Required Support Courses: CH 141-144 (or 151H, 153): MT 135, 228, PH 101, 101L, 102, 102L; plus one course from: PO 361, 363, SC 290, 380.
Strongly Recommended: CH 221-224
Major in Cell and Molecular Biology: 27-30 credit hours of biology, plus 36-41 credits of supporting courses in other departments. Courses are to be chosen with advisor approval and always include applicable laboratory corequisites.
BL 155, 156, 157, 158, 213, 215 or 470, 301 or 459, 465; plus two courses from: BL 159 and 160, 301, 310, 399, 410, 459, 470, 471, 475.
Required Support Courses: CH 141-144, (or 151H, 153), CH 221-224, CH 435-437; MT 135, MT 228, PH 125-126.
Note: For students earning a double major in Biology and Cell and Molecular Biology, no more than 25 Biology and Biochemistry credits may be counted toward both majors.
Comprehensive Examination: All majors are required to take the Major Field Achievement Test in Biology during their last semester at John Carroll University.
BL 155-160 is the normal introductory sequence for biology and environmental science majors. If, for a reason acceptable to the department, BL 157, 158, and 160 are taken separately from BL 155, 156, and 159, the student is expected to take BL 155, 156, and 159 or their equivalents before taking the laboratory courses. Entering freshmen will receive advanced placement and/or advanced standing in accord with scores listed on pages 18-19.
Pre-Health Professions Students
Students majoring in biology and cell and molecular biology who are planning to apply to medical school, dental school, or other health-care professional schools are strongly advised to take genetics, biochemistry, statistics, calculus, and physics to prepare for these highly competitive programs. Medical and dental schools require a year of physics for admission.
Pre-health professions students are strongly urged to contact the chair of Pre-Health Professions Studies at John Carroll for more information and for assistance in planning their educational programs and applications to professional schools. Students are also advised to consult current publications relevant to their proposed area of study and preferred colleges, including Medical School Admission Requirements of U.S. and Canada, Admission Requirements of U.S. and Canadian Dental Schools, and similar publications for specific professions, such as osteopathy, chiropractic, podiatry, veterinary medicine, physician assistant programs, nursing, physical therapy and optometry.
A list of John Carroll courses required for admission to The Ohio State University College of Veterinary Medicine is available in the Biology Department. A minimum of 80 hours of work with a veterinarian is required by OSU and most schools of veterinary medicine. Pre-vet students should contact the Pre-Health Professions chair during their freshman year for assistance in planning and for information about specific requirements and application procedures.
Doctor of Nursing Program
Biology majors interested in nursing as a career may choose to enter a seven-year 3/4 cooperative program in pre-nursing/nursing and earn the Bachelor of Science degree from John Carroll University and the Doctor of Nursing Practice degree from the Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing at Case Western Reserve University. Students in this program normally attend John Carroll for three academic years and complete all University core requirements, CH 141-144, CH 241-244, MT 135, MT 228, BL 155-160, BL 230-231, BL 310, and an organism-to-biosphere course. Three upper-level electives in the first year at Case Western Reserve University complete the major requirements: NUND 402, NUND 405, and NUND 408. After successful completion of one year at the Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing, the student will be awarded the Bachelor of Science degree with a biology major by John Carroll University. To be eligible for this program students must complete at least 60 credit hours at John Carroll, apply in writing to the dean of the College of Arts and Sciences by the end of the first semester of the junior year, and be accepted by the Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing in the usual manner. Students planning to follow this course of study should contact the department chair during the first semester of their sophomore year. A list of suggested courses is available from the department.
Biology Minor and Interdisciplinary Concentrations
An optional minor in biology is available to students majoring in any other field.
Biology majors may elect the interdisciplinary concentrations in neuroscience, environmental studies, or biochemistry/molecular biology. It is strongly recommended that students interested in these programs investigate them as early as possible in their academic careers. Interested students should refer to the section on “Interdisciplinary Minors and Concentrations” in this Bulletin (pages 84-91) for more information.
Students planning on obtaining licensure to teach Adolescent/Young Adult (AYA) Life Science at the secondary school level should consider taking ED 100 as soon as possible and should contact the Department of Education and Allied Studies by the end of their freshman year for guidance on requirements.
To receive a Bachelor of Science degree in biology, transfer students must complete a minimum of 17 credit hours in the department.
Many courses offered by the Biology Department include a laboratory and/or field-work component; these are listed as separate entries that immediately following the entry for the corresponding lecture component of the course.
Dentistry, optometry, osteopathy, doctorate of nursing, and some veterinary medicine programs permit students to enroll prior to completion of the undergraduate degree program. However, some dental schools and doctorate of nursing programs require students to complete an undergraduate degree before completion of the professional school program. Even those professional schools that do not formally require an undergraduate degree tend to give preference to candidates with a bachelor’s degree. In response to this trend John Carroll University has established a Senior Year In Absentia Program. The program requires students to complete the major (less two courses), and all cognate and Core Curriculum courses. The total number of hours taken at John Carroll will vary from 92 to 108 depending on the undergraduate major and the professional school requirements. Upon successful completion of the required number of hours, usually at the end of the first year of the professional school curriculum, John Carroll University will accept specified courses for transfer credit upon the presentation of documentation of successful completion. Students are then awarded a John Carroll University bachelor’s degree. This program is available to any student with the written consent of the dean of John Carroll University’s College of Arts and Sciences; formal admission to the professional school is required.
Graduate Studies in Biology
The department offers a program of studies leading to the degree of Master of Science or Master of Arts. Degree requirements are specified and courses described in The Graduate Studies Bulletin.
Biology majors planning to continue studies leading to master’s or doctoral studies are strongly urged to consult current publications relevant to the proposed area of biological study, including Peterson’s Guide to Graduate Study, Graduate Programs and Admissions Manual of the Graduate Record Examination Board, and catalogs of schools to which admission will be sought. Students should also consult their academic advisor in biology for undergraduate program recommendations. In addition, they can seek assistance from the department chair and the departmental coordinator of graduate studies.
101. SPECIAL TOPICS IN BIOLOGY 3 cr. Lecture course for non-majors. Offered on an irregular basis and based on a topic chosen by the instructor. Used primarily for designation of courses transferred in from other universities.
102. SPECIAL TOPICS LECTURE IN BIOLOGY 4 cr. Corequisite: BL 102L. Combined lecture-laboratory course for non-majors. Offered on an irregular basis and based on a topic chosen by the instructor. Must be accompanied by BL 102L. Used primarily for designation of courses transferred in from other universities.
102L. SPECIAL TOPICS LABORATORY IN BIOLOGY. 0 cr. Corequisite: BL 102. Two hours of laboratory per week. Must accompany BL 102.
103. PLANT SCIENCE 4 cr. No prerequisite; corequisite: BL 103L. Designed for the non-science major. Three hours of lecture per week. Structure and function in unicellular and multicellular plants, and general principles of plant science.
103L. PLANT SCIENCE LABORATORY 0 cr. Corequisite: BL 103. Two hours of laboratory per week.
109. ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY 4 cr. Corequisite: BL 109L. Designed for the non-science major. Three hours of lecture per week. Relationship between human activity and the natural environment; food production, water supplies, air and water pollution, nuclear and non-nuclear energy, hazardous and toxic materials in the environment, and world population growth. Economic implications of, and possible technological solutions to, these problems.
109L. ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY LABORATORY 0 cr. Corequisite: BL 109. Two hours of laboratory per week. Laboratory and field experiences intended to explore the scientific basis of environmental issues of the past, present, and future. A general understanding of the impact of human activity on the world and strategies for managing human activity for the good of the human population and the planet.
111. FUNDAMENTALS OF ECOLOGY 4 cr. Corequisite: BL 111L. Designed for the non-science major. Three hours of lecture per week. Characteristics of natural communities, their structure, distribution, and behavior. Interrelationships of organisms, including humans, within natural ecosystems.
111L. FUNDAMENTALS OF ECOLOGY LABORATORY 0 cr. Corequisite: BL 111. Two hours of laboratory per week. Emphasis on biomes and environmental adaptation, scientific method, and collection of data by observation.
112. HUMAN BIOLOGY 4 cr. Corequisite: BL 112L. Designed for the non-science major. Three hours of lecture per week. Basic human anatomy and physiology in normal and diseased states. Impact of technology on the environment.
112L. HUMAN BIOLOGY LABORATORY 0 cr. Corequisite: BL 112. Two hours of laboratory per week. Basic human anatomy and physiology in the normal state using model studies, hands-on experimental techniques, and some computer-based laboratory techniques.
115. HUMAN GENETICS AND RACE 4 cr. Corequisite: BL 115L. Three hours of lecture per week. Basic principles of genetics, both at the transmission and molecular levels. Introduction to principles of cell division, inheritance, and human pedigree analysis. DNA structure and chromosomal organization, gene expression, genetic variation, and population genetics and race.
115L. HUMAN GENETICS AND RACE LAB 0 cr. Corequisite: BL 115. Three hours of laboratory per week. Basic principles of scientific method, the use of computers and the Internet in scientific research, basic principles of inheritance, molecular genetics and biotechnology. Field trips and other activities when appropriate to the topic.
155, 156, 159. PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY I-II-III 3 cr. each. Designed for the science major. 155 is prerequisite to 156 and 159. Three hours of lecture per week. 155: basic chemical principles; cell structure, organization, metabolism of plants and animals. 156: plant and animal anatomy and physiology. 159: plant and animal biodiversity and evolution.
157, 158, 160. PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY LABORATORY I-II-III 1 cr. each. Corequisites: BL 155, 156, and 159. Three hours of laboratory per week. 157: laboratory study of the scientific method as applied to biology; cell division; development; functions of cell membranes and enzymes; reactions and products of photosynthesis. 158: laboratory study of plant and animal physiology. 160: taxonomy of bacteria, algae, protists, fungi, and multicellular plants and animals.
206. TROPICAL BIOLOGY 4 cr. Corequisite: BL 206L. For students participating in John Carroll’s Costa Rica Study Abroad Program. Intensive lecture/laboratory/field course in Costa Rica examining tropical biology and emphasizing ecology, evolution, conservation, and sustainable agriculture.
206L. TROPICAL BIOLOGY LABORATORY 0 cr. Corequisite: BL 206. For students participating in John Carroll’s Costa Rica Study Abroad Program.
213. GENETICS 4 cr. Prerequisites: BL 155-156. Four hours of lecture per week. Principles of molecular, transmission, quantitative, and population genetics; social and ethical implications of genetics.
215. INTRODUCTION TO BIOTECHNOLOGY 3 cr. Prerequisites: BL 213 or a grade of at least B in both BL 155 and BL 157, plus instructor permission; corequisite: BL 215L. (May not be taken concurrently with BL/CH 470, and no credit will be given if BL/CH 470 has been completed.) One hour of lecture per week. Introduction to basic techniques of DNA analysis, including restriction mapping, DNA cloning, plasmid DNA isolation, polymerase chain reaction, and computer analysis of DNA and protein sequences.
215L. INTRODUCTION TO BIOTECHNOLOGY LABORATORY 0 cr. Corequisite: BL 215. Four hours of laboratory per week.
222. GENERAL ECOLOGY 3 cr. Prerequisites: BL 155-160 or permission of instructor. Three hours of lecture per week. Interactions between plants, animals, and the physical environment. Population ecology, community dynamics, biogeochemical cycles, and biomes.
224. TERRESTRIAL ECOLOGY 3 cr. Prerequisite or corequisite: BL 222, MT 228, BL 224L. Ecological data collection and analysis. Students study model organisms to examine various aspects of terrestrial ecology, including animal behavior, food web dynamics, competition, and population dynamics.
224L. TERRESTRIAL ECOLOGY LABORATORY 0 cr. Corequisite: BL 224. Four hours of laboratory per week.
230-231. HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 4 cr. Prerequisites: BL 155, 156, 157, 158; corequisites: BL 230L, 231L. BL 230 is a prerequisite for BL 231. Three hours of lecture per week. Integrated discussion of human anatomy and physiology. Note: Completion of only BL 230 and 230L means the single semester will not apply or count toward the BL major. Further, completion of this two-semester sequence means students may not enroll in BL 360/360L. This class is not intended for biology majors planning to go to medical school or graduate school.
230L-231L. HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY LABORATORY 0 cr. Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.
254. DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY 4 cr. Prerequisites: BL 155-156; corequisite: BL 254L. Three hours of lecture per week. Study of sequential events in the development of vertebrates from gametogenesis to the neonate and the mechanisms that underlie those morphogenetic changes.
254L. DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY LABORATORY 0 cr. Corequisite: BL 254. Three hours of laboratory per week.
255. LOCAL SUMMER FLORA 3 cr. Prerequisites: BL 159, 160 or permission of chair. Taxonomy of the local vascular plant flora of Northeast Ohio. Plants of forests, wetlands, coastal areas, roadsides, and urban landscapes. Lectures and identification will be conducted in the field, with some laboratory instruction and lectures on campus. Meets 14 hours per week for four weeks.
260. POVERTY AND DISEASE 3 cr. Prerequisites: BL 155-158. Three hours of lecture/discussion per week. Global and US poverty; public health; epidemiology; US health disparities, e.g., diabetes, obesity, HIV/AIDS; global health disparities, e.g., HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria; evolutionary factors in chronic and infectious disease; ethical issues in public health research and treatment.
301. INTRODUCTION TO CELL BIOLOGY 3 cr. Prerequisites: BL 155-156. CH 141-144 (or 151, 153) and CH 221-224 are strongly recommended. Three hours of lecture per week. Structure and function of plant and animal cells and their organelles. Emphasis on modern cell biology techniques.
310. MICROBIOLOGY 4 cr. Prerequisite: BL 213; corequisite: BL 310L. Two hours of lecture per week. Structure, physiology, and genetics of bacteria; ecological and medical importance emphasized. Some discussion of viruses and eukaryotic microorganisms.
310L. MICROBIOLOGY LABORATORY 0 cr. Corequisite: BL 310. Four hours of laboratory per week.
331. GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE 3 cr. Prerequisites: BL 155-160, or instructor permission for non-biology students in the Environmental Studies concentration. Three hours of lecture/discussion per week. Historical overview of climate change; global water and carbon cycles; effects of greenhouse gases, aerosols, and radiative forcing mechanisms on climate processes and feedbacks; effects of rapid climate change on selected ecosystems; human influences on climate; likely future changes.
350. VERTEBRATE ANATOMY 5 cr. Prerequisites: BL 155-160; corequisite: BL 350L. Three hours of lecture per week. Anatomy, development, evolution, and phylogeny of vertebrates. (This course was formerly listed as BL 250.)
350L. VERTEBRATE ANATOMY LABORATORY 0 cr. Corequisite: BL 350. Six hours of laboratory per week. (This course was formerly listed as BL 250L.)
360. HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY 4 cr. Prerequisites: BL 155-158; corequisite: BL 360L. Three hours of lecture per week. Muscle physiology, circulation, respiration, excretion, and digestion in mammals as well as the neuronal and hormonal mechanisms regulating these processes.
360L. HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY LABORATORY 0 cr. Corequisite: BL 360. Three hours of laboratory per week.
370. EVOLUTION 3 cr. Prerequisites: BL 159, 160, 213. Three hours of lecture per week. Introduction to modern evolutionary biology, including evolutionary processes and speciation, character evolution, and macroevolution.
399. SPECIAL PROBLEMS IN BIOLOGY 1-4 cr. Prerequisites: junior status, 3.0 GPA in biology major, and written consent of instructor and chair. Investigation of laboratory or field problems in a specific area of biology under faculty supervision.
405. SCIENTIFIC ILLUSTRATION 3 cr. Prerequisites: BL159/160 and instructor permission; experience in art not required. Single three-hour lecture per week. Developing skills of observation in biological sciences and learning how to produce publication-quality illustrations of measured accuracy, conceptualized drawings, and diagrammatic images for dissemination of research results. By the end of the course, students will have developed a concise but comprehensive portfolio showcasing various techniques and graphic styles. An additional fee is required for personal illustration materials. This course does not fulfill the 400-level biology course requirement for biology majors.
410. INFECTION AND IMMUNITY 3 cr. Prerequisite: BL 213. Bacterial and viral pathogens of humans and those aspects of the immune response important in resistance and immunity to infectious diseases.
415. INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEMATIC BIOLOGY 3 cr. Prerequisites: BL 159/160, BL 350 or 370, and instructor permission. Three hours of lecture per week. The scientific discipline that deals with the identification, naming, description, classification, and organization of extant and extinct biological diversity. Includes a discussion of philosophy and practice of methods of reconstructing evolutionary history.
420. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY 3 cr. Prerequisites: BL 155-160. Three hours of lecture per week. Detailed study of photosynthesis, water relations, mineral nutrition, and stress responses in plants with emphasis on current research techniques.
421. HERPETOLOGY 4 cr. Prerequisites: BL 155-160; corequisite: BL 421L. Two hours of lecture per week. Intensive study of amphibians and reptiles, with special emphasis on classification, ecology, and evolution of North American species.
421L. Herpetology Laboratory 0 cr. Corequisite: BL 421. Four hours of laboratory per week. Three Saturday field trips and one weekend field trip.
424. AQUATIC RESOURCES 4 cr. Prerequisites: BL 155-160; corequisite: BL 424L. Study of aquatic organisms and their environment. Study of algae, insects, and fish as biological indicators of water and habitat quality in stream, lake, and wetland ecosystems. Impacts of water pollution, acidification, and other anthropogenic disturbance on aquatic systems will be studied.
424L. AQUATIC RESOURCES 0 cr. Corequisite: BL 424L. Saturday laboratory consisting of field trips and laboratory analysis of aquatic life.
425. ICHTHYOLOGY 4 cr. Prerequisites: BL 155-160; corequisite: BL 425L. Two hours of lecture per week. Evolution, zoogeography, taxonomy, behavior, and ecology of North American fishes.
425L. ICHTHYOLOGY LABORATORY 0 cr. Corequisite: BL 425. Four hours of laboratory per week. Two weekend field trips.
430. MEDICAL PARASITOLOGY 4 cr. Prerequisites: BL 159-160; corequisite: BL 430L. Two hours of lecture per week. Parasitic forms of medical importance will be covered. Emphasis on their biology, clinical presentation, the ecology of the disease, and epidemiology. Includes morphology, physiology, and diagnosis.
430L. MEDICAL PARASITOLOGY LABORATORY 0 cr. Corequisite: BL 430. Four hours of laboratory per week. Laboratory sessions on the diagnostic aspects of parasites and the pathological changes in tissues.
435. PLANT ECOLOGY 3 cr. Prerequisites: BL 155-160. BL 222 strongly recommended. Three hours of lecture per week. Study of the distribution and abundance of plants from organismal, population, and community perspectives. Both seminal and novel research in the discipline emphasized.
435L. PLANT ECOLOGY LABORATORY 0 cr. Corequisite: BL 435. Three hours of laboratory per week.
440. BEHAVIOR 3 cr. Prerequisites: BL 155-160. Three hours of lecture/discussion per week. Evolutionary approach to animal behavior with emphasis on recent research. Outside readings and papers.
442. ORNITHOLOGY 4 cr. Prerequisites: BL 155‑160; corequisite: BL 442L. Three hours of lecture per week. Biology, taxonomy, ecology, and behavior of birds.
442L. ORNITHOLOGY LABORATORY 0 cr. Corequisite: BL 442. Three hours of laboratory per week, plus field trips.
444. ADVANCED ECOLOGY 4 cr. Prerequisites: BL 222, MT 228; corequisite: BL 444L. BL 223 is recommended. Three hours of lecture/discussion per week. Topics include predator‑prey interactions, global change, niche theory, competition, null models, and community assembly rules.
444L. ADVANCED ECOLOGY LABORATORY 0 cr. Corequisite: BL 444. Three hours of laboratory per week. Students work in teams on a project of their own choosing. Includes experimental design, data analysis, write‑up, and presentation.
447. ALGAE AS BIOINDICATORS 4 cr. Prerequisites: BL 159, 160; corequisite: BL 447L. Two hours of lecture per week. Theory and practice of using algae as bioindicators of water quality in streams and lakes. Taxonomy of indicator groups will be covered.
447L. ALGAE AS BIOINDICATORS LABORATORY 0 cr. Prerequisites: BL 159, 160; corequisite: BL 447L. Four hours of laboratory per week. Two weekend field trips. Emphasis is on diatoms, but cyanobacteria, green algae, euglenoids, and other indicator taxa will also be examined. Projects included.
450. ORGANOGENESIS 4 cr. Prerequisite: BL 213; corequisite: BL 450L; strongly recommended: BL 254 or 301. Three hours of lecture/discussion per week. Introduction to morphogenetic mechanisms underlying acquisition of embryonic structure. Introduction to the literature of the field and discussion of historical background and current developments.
450L. ORGANOGENESIS LABORATORY 4 cr. Corequisite: BL 450. Three hours of laboratory per week. Introduction to sterile technique, microdissection, tissue culture, and other investigative techniques used in morphogenetic studies and data analysis.
459. MOLECULAR CELL BIOLOGY 3 cr. Prerequisite: BL 213. Three hours of lecture per week. Cell signaling; regulation of the eukaryotic cell cycle, cancer, protein trafficking; cytoskeleton. Emphasis on current primary literature. Presentation of a seminar is required.
465. MOLECULAR GENETICS 3 cr. Prerequisites: BL 213, CH 431 or 435. Three hours of lecture per week. DNA technology; genomics; genome organization; structure, replication, and expression of genetic information in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Emphasis on current primary literature.
470. MOLECULAR METHODS LABORATORY 3 cr. Prerequisite/corequisite: BL 465 or 565. Eight hours of laboratory per week. Methods used in analysis of proteins and nucleic acids. Students in the Biochemistry/Molecular Biology concentration have priority admission.
471. IMMUNOLOGY 3 cr. Prerequisite: BL 213. Three hours of lecture per week. Concepts of humoral and cell-mediated immunity with strong emphasis on the cellular basis of the immune response. Experimental evidence emphasized.
475. ENDOCRINOLOGY 3 cr. Prerequisite: BL 155-158. Three hours of lecture per week. The endocrine glands, hormones, and their mechanisms of action in mammals.
478. BIOLOGY SEMINAR 1 cr. Current topics presented by invited guests, faculty, and students.
479. SPECIAL TOPICS IN BIOLOGY 1‑4 cr. Prerequisites: BL 155‑160 and consent of instructor. Offered on an irregular basis; topics chosen by instructor. A lecture/discussion course; may include laboratories or field trips. For student research see BL 399.