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Chemistry (CH)

Professors:  N. R. Baumgartner, P. R. Challen; Associate Professors:  M. A. Nichols, D. P. Mascotti, M. J. Waner, Y. C. Chai; Assistant Professors:  C. Miller, M. P. Setter (Chair), M. L. Kwan

The Department of Chemistry is equipped with modern laboratory facilities available for hands-on experience for students preparing for careers in chemistry, biochemistry, medicine, biotechnology, and other fields.  Recent graduates have gone on to graduate study in chemistry, biochemistry, medicine, dentistry, law, pharmacy, and forensic science.  Others have gone directly into the work force in chemistry and allied fields.

The department is approved by the Committee on Professional Training of the American Chemical Society.  The three major programs leading to a Bachelor of Science degree in chemistry are described below.  Students’ choices among them should be based on long-range career plans.

Undergraduate research has become a vital component of the modern chemistry curriculum in recent decades.  The department maintains an active undergraduate research program, and nearly all majors are involved in research projects during their studies.  These projects occur with chemistry faculty at John Carroll, the Lerner Research Institute at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, and other universities and local industries.  The department was recognized in 2002 with a Heuer Award for Outstanding Achievement in Undergraduate Science Education from the Council of Independent Colleges for making undergraduate research a capstone experience.

Major Programs
The Comprehensive Chemistry major is designed primarily for the student who intends to become a professional chemist.  It provides the preparation necessary for graduate study in chemistry.
Students who successfully complete the program for the comprehensive major in chemistry have satisfied the minimum requirements specified by the Committee on Professional Training of the American Chemical Society.  These students will be certified to the society by the department.
The Biochemistry major is intended for students who wish to use the undergraduate major in chemistry as preparation for further study and/or employment in medicine, dentistry, or any of the other life sciences:  molecular biology, pharmacy, clinical chemistry, biotechnology, pharmacology, toxicology, industrial hygiene, veterinary medicine, and other health-related fields.  To serve such a variety of career goals, the program offers flexibility in some requirements.
The General Chemistry major is available to students who desire a systematic training in chemistry as background for a career in other related fields, such as business, education*, information science, journalism, forensic chemistry, or law.  It is also useful to students who wish to earn the equivalent of a second major in another discipline. (*Students wishing to teach chemistry or general science in secondary schools should confer with the Department of Education and Allied Studies during freshman year.)  (The description of the major continues on page 161.)

Major and Minor Requirements

Comprehensive Chemistry Major:  40-50 credit hours.  CH 141, 142, 143, 144 (or 151, 153), 221, 222, 223, 224, 261, 263, 365, 366, 367, 368, 431, 441, 443, 478A, 478B, 481, 482, plus a minimum of six credits of upper-division electives, at least one of which is laboratory-based. CH 399 is strongly encouraged.
Required Support Courses:  28 hours.  MT 135, 136, 233; PH 215, 215L, 216, 216L, and 246 or 325; EP 217.  Pre-chemical engineering students should take PH 246.  CS 201 is strongly encouraged.

Biochemistry Major:  40-50 hours.  CH 141, 142, 143, 144 (or 151, 153), 221, 222, 223, 224, 261, 263, 361 (or 365-366), 367, 435, 436, 437, 478A, 478B; BL 155-156, 157-158; MT 135, 136 or, by permission, 228; PH 125, 125L, 126 and 126L (or PH 215, 215L, 216, 216L).

Students will take three approved upper-division CH or BL electives, of which at least one is CH.  It is strongly recommended that CH 441, 443, be taken as one of the CH electives.  CH 399 is strongly encouraged.

Upper-division biology electives may be selected from BL 213, 250, 250L, 254-254L, 301, 308-308L, 310-310L, 360-360L, 410, 459, 465, 471, 475, or other courses approved by the chemistry department chair. Premedical students are strongly advised to select BL 213 as one elective.

General Major:  31-36 hours.  CH 141, 142, 143, 144 (or 151, 153), 221, 222, 223, 224, 261, 263, 361 (or 365-366), 367, 441, 443, 478A, 478B, and two upper-division electives.  CH 399 is strongly encouraged.
Required Support Courses for General Majors and Minors:  14-16 hours.  PH 125, 125L, 126, 126L (or PH 215, 215L, 216, 216L); MT 135, 136 or, by permission, 228.

Minor in Chemistry:  27 hours.  CH 141, 142, 143, 144 (or 151, 153), 221, 222, 223, 224, 261, 263, 361 (or 365-366), 367.
Required Support Courses:  as listed above.

Concentration in Chemistry:  22 hours.  CH 141, 142, 143, 144 (or 151, 153), 221, 222, 223, 224, 261, 263.

A general chemistry major combined with a minor in business (see pages 81-82) is excellent preparation for a career in industrial chemistry if one’s goal is management or an M.B.A.  This would also allow a student to complete the B.S. in chemistry and M.B.A. at John Carroll in five years of full-time study.  PL 311 should be taken in the Core curriculum to facilitate this.  Interested students should consult with their advisor early in their freshman or sophomore year.

A general chemistry major combined with the criminology sequence in sociology (see page 317) is excellent preparation for graduate study in forensic chemistry.

Typically in the spring semester of the sophomore year, all intended chemistry majors, regardless of program, must make a formal application to the department to be accepted as majors.  Applicants with a minimum GPA of 2.5 in the chemistry core sequence CH 141, 142, 143, 144 (or 151, 513), and 221, 223 may be accepted unconditionally as chemistry majors.  A minimum GPA of 2.0 in the support courses is also required.  A student who does not meet the above criteria, but who does have a minimum GPA of 2.25 in the entire chemistry core sequence, will be considered for a conditional acceptance as a chemistry major.

All chemistry majors, regardless of program, must maintain a GPA of 2.0 in the chemistry courses and in the required sequence of support courses.

Interdisciplinary Concentrations
The department collaborates in the interdisciplinary concentrations in biochemistry/molecular biology (BCMB), environmental studies, and neuroscience. These programs are described in the section on “Interdisciplinary Minors and Concentrations” (pages 84-91).

Those who participate in the neuroscience concentration should complete the biochemistry program with the chemistry major.

Pre-Engineering Programs
Students interested in engineering have three options:

  1. They may elect the 3/2 program, which consists of the first three years at John Carroll as a science major followed by two years at a participating engineering school.  Successful completion of the 3/2 program leads to two bachelor’s degrees: a B.S. from John Carroll and a bachelor’s in engineering from the second school.  Further details are provided under “Engineering Programs” in “Preparation for Graduate and Professional Studies” (page 104).
  2. They may complete the B.S. in chemistry (ordinarily as a comprehensive major) and then enter an engineering school for a further degree.  This would typically entail a total of six years to obtain a B.S. from John Carroll and an M.S. from another institution.
  3. They may choose to complete two years of pre-engineering at John Carroll and then transfer to an engineering school to pursue a bachelor’s degree in engineering.

Cooperative Education Program in Chemistry
A cooperative education (co-op) program in chemistry provides interested and capable students with a combination of formal and applied educational experiences.  This is accomplished by alternating periods of university study with full-time employment in an industrial, governmental, or clinical setting.  Participation in such a program helps students grow personally and professionally.  It also gives students a distinct advantage in obtaining satisfying permanent employment.  For a general discussion of these Career Education courses, see pages 54-55 of this Bulletin.

To be eligible for admission to the program, students must be accepted chemistry majors (whether comprehensive, biochemistry, or general), with a minimum average of 2.5 both overall and in chemistry.  Students should demonstrate dexterity and understanding in laboratory work as well as the ability to communicate effectively in speech and writing.  Prerequisites for admission to the program include successful completion of CH 222, 224, and CE 101 or CE 111.  Students should apply for admission to the co-op program when they apply for acceptance into the major program.

There are three required work experiences, credited as CE 102-104.  For each approved work experience, one unit of academic credit is available.  On approval by the chair, the three credits for CE 102-104, inclusive, may be used to satisfy an upper-division elective in chemistry.  Because of the alternate work-study program co-op students may require five years to complete the B.S. degree.

Optional Minor/Concentration/Certificate
An optional minor in chemistry is available to students majoring in any other department.  A cumulative quality-point average of 2.0 must be achieved in the chemistry and support-course sequences.

Students in other departments may prefer a concentration in chemistry.  A cumulative quality-point average of 2.0 must be achieved in the chemistry course sequence.

A non-degree certificate program is also available for students who desire a solid chemistry background without a full degree (typically post-baccalaureate students).  See page 77.

No changes in, substitutions for, or exceptions to the above requirements will be permitted without prior, written authorization of the department chair and the approval of the appropriate dean by academic petition. 

103. ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY 3 cr.  Corequisite:  CH 103L.  Application of chemical principles to environmental and ecological problems. 
103L. ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY LABORATORY 1 cr.  Corequisite:  CH 103.  Two hours of laboratory per week.  Laboratory experience in specific environmental problems.
105. CHEMISTRY IN SOCIETY 3 cr.  Corequisite:  CH 105L.  Basis of science literacy which enables non-science students to make better informed decisions on issues relating to science and technology.  Ethical issues, air and water quality, stratospheric ozone depletion, global warming, energy sources and use, plastics, drugs, and medications.
105L. CHEMISTRY IN SOCIETY LABORATORY 1 cr.  Corequisite: CH 105. Two hours of laboratory per week.  Laboratory experience in topics discussed in CH 105.
141-142. GENERAL CHEMISTRY I-II 4 cr. each. Stoichiometry, thermochemistry, states of matter, atomic structure, chemical bonding, oxidation-reduction, acid-base, solutions.  Homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibria, electrochemistry, kinetics, chemistry of metals and non-metals, and other relevant topics.
143-144. GENERAL CHEMISTRY LABORATORY I-II 1 cr. each.  Corequisites:           CH 141-142.  Three hours of laboratory per week.  Laboratory experiments illustrating principles developed in corequisite lecture courses.
151. CHEMICAL PRINCIPLES 4 cr. Prerequisite:  chair’s approval; corequisite: CH 153.  Introductory chemistry for the well-prepared student.  Topics include atomic structure, chemical bonding, molecular structure, acid-base theories, solutions, thermodynamics, kinetics, equilibria, electrochemistry, coordination chemistry.
153. CHEMICAL PRINCIPLES LABORATORY 1 cr.  Prerequisite:  chair’s approval; corequisite:  CH 151.  Three hours of laboratory per week.  Review of basic laboratory techniques.  Experiments illustrating principles developed in the corequisite lecture course.
221-222. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY I-II 3 cr. each.  Prerequisites:  CH 141-144 (or 151, 153).  Theoretical and descriptive treatment of the structure and reactions of the more representative classes of aliphatic and aromatic organic compounds.  Aliphatic, alicyclic, and aromatic hydrocarbons, stereochemistry, carbocation theory, electrophilic substitution reactions, functional derivatives of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, carbanion theory, nucleophilic displacement, elimination reactions, and spectroscopic analysis.
223-224. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY LABORATORY I-II 1 cr. each.  Corequisites:  CH 221-222.  Four hours of laboratory per week.  Laboratory experiments to illustrate the behavior of important classes and reaction types.
261. ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY 3 cr. Prerequisites:  CH 141-144 (or 151, 153); corequisite: CH 263.  Three hours of lecture per week.  Overview of chemical analysis; introductory statistics; equilibria; redox chemistry; and basic principles of modern electrochemical, spectroscopic, and chromatographic analysis; sampling; and sample preparation.
263. ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY LABORATORY 1 cr. Corequisite:  CH 261.  Four hours of laboratory per week.  Practice in classical analysis, sampling and sample preparation, and introductory instrumental analysis.  Experiments are designed to illustrate the principles discussed in CH 261.
298. TEACHING ASSISTANT IN CHEMISTRY 0 cr.  Registration requires permission of chair.  Duties may include preparation of laboratories, assisting faculty and student activities during laboratories, and/or grading.  Graded SA/FA.
299. SPECIAL TOPICS IN CHEMISTRY 1-3 cr. Extended treatment of a chemical topic of general interest.  Topic and prerequisites will be announced in the course schedule.
361. INTRODUCTORY PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY 3 cr.  Prerequisites:  CH 141-144 (or 151, 153), 221-224, MT 135; prerequisites/corequisites:  PH 125, 125L, physical chemistry for biochemistry-oriented students.  Thermodynamics, kinetics, and other physical principles necessary for an understanding of the function of living systems.
365. PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY I 3 cr. Prerequisites:  CH 141-144 (or 151, 153), 221-224, MT 135; prerequisites/corequistes:  MT 136; PH 125, 125L, or 215, 215L.  Kinetic molecular theory and the properties of gases, thermodynamics, thermodynamic properties of solutions, kinetics.
366. PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY II 3 cr.  Prerequisite:  CH 365.  Prerequisites/corequisites:  PH 126, 126L, or 216, 216L.  Introduction to quantum mechanics, atomic and molecular structure, liquid and solid states, phase equilibria, electromotive force, and symmetry.
367. PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY LABORATORY I 2 cr.  Prerequisites:  CH 261, 263; prerequisite/corequisite:  CH 365 (or 361).  Four hours of laboratory per week.  Laboratory experiments designed to illustrate the principles discussed in CH 361 and 365.  Emphasis on scientific writing.
368. PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY LABORATORY II 1 cr.  Prerequisite:  CH 367; prerequisite/corequisite:  CH 366.  Four hours of laboratory per week.  Laboratory experiments designed to illustrate the principles discussed in CH 365, 366.
399. UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH 1-3 cr.  Registration requires approval of a faculty sponsor and/or permission of department chair.  Number of credits to be agreed on by student and faculty sponsor, and specified at registration.  Minimum of four hours’ work per week are expected per credit hour.  Course may be repeated for credit; however, only three credits of CH 399 may be used to fulfill an upper-division course elective. CH 399 credit also counts as upper-division lab credit.  Systematic investigation of an original research problem.  Satisfactory presentation of the results at a scientific meeting, department seminar, or University forum is ordinarily expected.  A written report must be submitted by the time a third credit is finished.
431. GENERAL BIOCHEMISTRY 4 cr.  Prerequisites:  CH 221, 224.  One semester survey; proteins, enzymes, nucleic acids, lipids, membranes, and carbohydrates.  Approximately half of the course is devoted to metabolism and metabolic regulation.  May be used as a corequisite for CH 437.
435. BIOCHEMISTRY I 4 cr.  Prerequisites:  CH 221, 224; BL 155, 156 strongly recommended.  Structure/function of proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, biomembranes, and carbohydrates.  Enzyme catalysis, coenzymes, regulation of proteins, DNA binding proteins, molecular genetics (introduction), laboratory methods, and signal transduction.  Note:  See listing under Biology for BL 465, a separate course focusing on the biochemistry/molecular biology of gene expression.
436. BIOCHEMISTRY II 3 cr.  Prerequisite:  CH 435.  Bioenergetics and the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, and nucleotides.  Emphasis on integration and regulation by metabolic, hormonal, and genetic factors.  Photosynthesis and some physiological topics.
437. BIOCHEMISTRY LABORATORY 1 cr.  Corequisite:  CH 431 or CH 435.  Four hours of laboratory per week.  Protein isolation, chromatography, electrophoresis, quantitative assays, enzyme kinetics, DNA isolation and restriction enzyme analysis, fluorescence and UV/VIS spectroscopy, and bioinformatics.  Note:  CH/BL 470 provides additional laboratory instruction in methods for biochemistry/molecular biology.
439. BIOCHEMISTRY III 3 cr.  Prerequisite:  CH 436.  In-depth examination of selected topics with extensive reading of original research articles and review papers.  Topics covered in recent years:  G-proteins, SH2 and SH3 domains in protein-protein recognition, signal transduction pathways, oncogenes, tumor suppressors, prenylation of proteins, ubiquitin-based protein degradation, anti-cancer drugs, regulation of gene expression, angiogenesis, pharmacokinetics gene delivery, and new developments in laboratory methods and instrumentation.
441. INSTRUMENTAL ANALYSIS 3 cr.  Prerequisite:  CH 261; pre- or corequisite:  CH 365 or CH 361; corequisite:  CH 443.  Three hours of lecture per week.  In-depth treatment of modern chemical instrumentation; quantitative analysis using UV/VIS, IR, NMR, MS, AAS, ICP, electrochemistry, chromatography; qualitative characterization of pure substances through interpretation of IR, NMR, and mass spectra.  Emphasis will be on the unique capabilities and limitations of each technique.  This course is highly recommended for students interested in pursuing a career in chemical research.
443. INSTRUMENTAL ANALYSIS LABORATORY 2 cr.  Prerequisite:  CH 263; corequisite: CH 441.  Four hours of laboratory per week.  Practice in instrumental analysis and experimental design, reflecting quantitative determinations and qualitative characterization of substances.  Experiments are designed to illustrate principles discussed in CH 441.
470. MOLECULAR METHODS LABORATORY 3 cr.  Prerequisites:  CH 435, 437; prerequisite/corequisite:  BL 465; BL 310 recommended.  Eight hours of laboratory per week.  Methods used in analysis of proteins and nucleic acids. Students in the biochemistry/molecular biology concentration have priority for admission to this course.
478. CHEMISTRY SEMINAR 0 cr. Prerequisites:  CH 221-224.  All chemistry majors are required to complete satisfactorily two semesters of CH 478.  Meets one hour per week.  Attendance at eight seminars per semester constitutes completion of this requirement.  Offers the opportunity to learn about the frontiers of chemistry.  Guest speakers from industry, government, and academia, including John Carroll faculty and students.  Graded SA/FA.
481. INORGANIC CHEMISTRY 3 cr. Prerequisite:  CH 361 or 365.  Principles correlating the chemistry of the elements and their compounds.  Atomic structure, chemical periodicity, chemical bonding, inorganic stereochemistry, acids and bases, electromotive force, group theory, symmetry, coordination compounds, and nonaqueous systems.
482. INORGANIC CHEMISTRY LABORATORY 1 cr.  Prerequisite:  CH 367.  Four hours of laboratory per week.  Laboratory syntheses and analyses to illustrate the chemistry of the elements and their compounds.
495. SPECIAL TOPICS IN CHEMISTRY 1-3 cr.  Subject matter not covered by established courses but of interest to faculty member involved.  Topic announced in course schedule.
498. INDEPENDENT STUDY 1-3 cr.  Independent study under the supervision of a faculty member.  Requires approval of the faculty member and permission of the department chair.

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