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Education and Allied Studies (ED)

Professors:  A. R. Hoffman, C. M. Faiver, K. A. Roskos, P. J. Britton, C. A. Rosemary; Associate Professors:  T. E. Kelly, K. M. Manning, J. E. Jenkins, M. G. Storz (Associate Dean), D. Shutkin, G. A. DiLisi, B. Foreman (Chair), J. L. Rausch; Assistant Professors:  N. P. Taylor, L. M. Shoaf, T. Ford, M. Weems, R. Allen, A. Moses, C. Brennan; Instructor: Y. Shang; Visiting Instructor:  L. Landreth

The mission of the department is to provide educational leadership for a more just society in schools and community agencies.  This mission is grounded in the Jesuit mission of the University and Jesuit history.  The meaning and scope of the mission reflect all professional preparation programs housed within this academic unit.

To achieve its mission the department is committed to the following goals:

  • To provide professional education in a liberal arts context.
  • To uphold traditional values, yet be responsive and sensitive to society’s changing needs.
  • To focus on personal as well as professional development of the individual.
  • To emphasize teaching that is anchored in a strong research base.
  • To instill the Jesuit ideal of an educator in our candidates.

The teacher education program, which comprises the undergraduate level of the department’s program, is accredited by the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), approved by the Ohio Department of Education, and designed to fulfill the 1998 State of Ohio Standards for teacher licensure.

The teacher education program prepares candidates for careers in one of four licensure areas: 

  • Early Childhood, Pre-K to 3rd grade
  • Middle Childhood, 4th grade to 9th grade
  • Adolescent/Young Adult, 7th grade to 12th grade
  • Multi-Age, Pre-K to 12th grade 

To qualify for the two-year provisional teaching license, the candidate must successfully complete the teacher education program and pass the appropriate Praxis II exams mandated by the State of Ohio.  All teacher licensure candidates must submit to fingerprinting and background checks by government investigative agencies.

Note:  Licensure programs are subject to change based on recommendations of external accrediting bodies, e.g., Specialized Professional Associations (SPAs), Ohio Department of Education (ODE), and NCATE.

                                                                 
Early Childhood (EC), Middle Childhood (MC), Adolescent/Young Adult (AYA), and Multi-Age (MA) Teaching

Successful completion of degree and licensure requirements entails course work in three categories:  1.Professional Education; 2. General Education; and 3. Curriculum Content (EC, MC) or Teaching Field (AYA and MA).

The University offers an undergraduate major in education.  Students completing this major qualify for Early Childhood (EC) or Middle Childhood (MC) licensure after successful completion of the competency assessments, including student teaching and PRAXIS II exams.

Education Major

PROFESSIONAL AND PEDAGOGICAL STUDIES
A minimum of two-thirds of the credit hours in professional education studies must be earned at John Carroll University.
Early Childhood Education (EC): 58 semester hours
Middle Childhood Education (MC): 40 semester hours

GENERAL EDUCATION
Early Childhood Education (EC):  met by University Core
(Core may also fulfill some curriculum content requirements)
Middle Childhood Education (MC):  University Core
(Core may also fulfill some curriculum content requirements)

CURRICULUM CONTENT
Early Childhood Education (EC):  21 semester hours
Middle Childhood Education (MC)
Language Arts:  32-38 semester hours
Mathematics:  25-26 semester hours
Science:  27 semester hours
Social Studies:  24 semester hour

The Early Childhood program develops expertise in working with children from ages 3 through 8 and pre-kindergarten through grade three. Candidates who earn an Early Child License may take the appropriate course work to qualify for a Middle Child license in one teaching content area.

The Middle Childhood program develops expertise in teaching students from ages 8 through 14 and grades four through nine.  This program prepares middle-child educators in two of four content areas:  language arts, math, science, and social studies.  The middle-child candidate may also qualify for the Middle Child Generalist Endorsement through additional course work and licensure exams.  Consult with the middle child coordinator regarding course and test requirements.

The University also offers Adolescent/Young Adult and Multi-Age teaching licensure preparation in a number of major teaching fields.  Students completing the required education course work and teaching content area course work qualify for an Adolescent/Young Adult (AYA) (Grades 7-12) or Multi-Age (MA) (Pre K-12) license upon completion of required competency assessments, including student teaching and PRAXIS II exams.

The Adolescent/ Young Adult candidate prepares to work with adolescents from ages 12 through 21 and grades seven through twelve.  Candidates may be licensed in at least one of the following teaching fields:

1.  Integrated Language Arts
2.  Integrated Social Studies
3.  Integrated Mathematics
4.  Chemistry/Life Science

5.  Life Science
6.  Physical Science:  Physics/Chemistry
7.  Physics
8.  Chemistry

The Multi-Age license prepares candidates to teach ages 3 through 21 and pre-kindergarten through grade twelve.  Candidates may be licensed in one of the following teaching fields:  French, Latin, Spanish, German, or Physical Education.

The Coordinator of Initial Licensure Programs and the Coordinator of Graduate Initial Licensure Programs in consultation with faculty and administrative staff counsel all undergraduate students interested in education as a major and/or license, and post-baccalaureate students interested in obtaining licensure.  Prospective education majors may be assigned an academic advisor in the Department of Education and Allied Studies as their freshman/sophomore academic advisor.  Prospective students interested in AYA or MA licensure continue to be advised by their major departments, though they are expected to maintain close and continuous contact with the AYA and MA education advisor or the coordinators of Initial Licensure Programs.  Candidates must work closely with an advisor to complete a licensure program and/or a major in four years of full-time study.  Those who declare an education major later in their academic program may expect to spend additional time completing requirements.

I. Professional and Pedagogical Studies
Professional and pedagogical studies provide a planned sequence of courses that develop knowledge about education, for example, its social and historical foundations, and foster understanding and use of the principles of effective teaching. The following courses are common to all licensure areas (EC, MC, AYA, and MA):
   
ED 100 Introduction to Education 2 cr.
ED 186 Instructional Technology 2 cr.
ED 201 Assessment, Learning & Individual Differences 3 cr.
ED 253 School and Society 3 cr.
ED 255 Literacy Across the Curriculum 3 cr.
ED 350 Multicultural Education in a Pluralistic Society 3 cr.
ED 405 Seminar in Teaching 3 cr.
ED 444 Student Teaching 9 cr.
   
Specifically required for Early Childhood Education  
ED 224 Introduction to Early Childhood Education 3 cr.
ED 225 Observational Assessment of the Young Child 3 cr.
ED 225E Seminar I:  Focus on Family Ecology 3 cr.
ED 325 Learning Across the Early Childhood Years 3 cr.
ED 331 Integrated Learning in Preschool 3 cr.
ED 332 Integrated Learning in Early Elementary Years 3 cr.
ED 355 Language Study and Phonics 3 cr.
ED 415 Educational Procedures for the Exceptional Child 3 cr.
ED 456 Reading Assessment and Intervention 3 cr.
ED 457 Methods in Reading Education 3 cr.
   
Specifically required for Middle Childhood Education  
ED 330 Middle Childhood Education Philosophy and Instruction 3 cr.
PS  262 Adolescent Development 3 cr.
ED 355 Language Study and Phonics 3 cr.
ED 456 Reading Assessment and Intervention 3 cr.
ED 457 Methods in Reading Education 3 cr.
   
Specifically required for Adolescent/Young Adult Education  
PS  262 Adolescent Development 3 cr.
ED 337 Adolescent Special Education Methods 3 cr.
ED 427 Adolescent Education Special Topics 3 cr.
   
Specifically required for Multi-Age Education  
PS  261 Child Development 3 cr.
ED 337 Adolescent Special Education Methods 3 cr.
ED 427 Adolescent Education Special Topics 3 cr.

II. General Education (57 semester hours)
General Education requirements are met by the University Core.  Many of the University Core courses may also fulfill program licensure requirements.  Early childhood candidates must have a minimum GPA in University Core courses of 2.5 for admission to teacher education and student teaching.

III. Curriculum Content or Teaching Field
Early Childhood Licensure requirements (12 semester hours)
The curriculum and content courses of the Early Childhood License prepare pre-service teachers of young children (ages 3-8) for professions in pre-school and school settings, grounded in developmentally appropriate practice, and responsive to individual differences and needs.

MT 171 Foundation of Early Childhood Mathematics 3 cr.
AR 171 Interdisciplinary Science 3 cr.
PE 411 Health & Physical Education in Early Childhood 3 cr.
PS  261 Child Development 3 cr.

Middle Childhood Licensure requirements (2 curriculum content areas, ranging from 25 to 38 semester hours in each)
The curriculum and content courses of the Middle Childhood License prepare pre-service middle-school teachers to understand the unique nature of the middle-school environment and to organize the learning environment to respect developmental characteristics of middle-grade students.  The middle-child faculty advisor will advise middle-child students as to required education course work and content-area course work for the two teaching areas, which include:
Language Arts (ED 424 plus 29-35 semester hours of course work in EN and CO).
Mathematics (ED 424 plus 22-23 semester hours of course in MT and CS).
Science (ED 424 plus 24 semester hours of course work in BL, CH, and PH).
Social Studies (ED 424 plus 14 semester hours of course work in EC, PO, SC, and HS).
Note:  1) An overall GPA of 2.7 or higher must be maintained in content-area course work for Middle Child, Adolescent/Young Adult, and Multi-Age Licensure.
2) Undergraduate candidates who complete less than one-half of content-area course work at John Carroll will be required to pass PRAXIS II in the content area as a prerequisite for student teaching, Middle Child, Adolescent/Young Adult, or Multi-Age Licensure.
3) Post-baccalaureate candidates must pass PRAXIS II in the content area as a prerequisite for student teaching, Middle Child, Adolescent/Young Adult, or Multi-Age Licensure.

Adolescent and Young Adult Licensure requirements
The curriculum and content courses of the Adolescent and Young Adult License equip the pre-service secondary school teachers with the capacities and commitments to promote individual development and civic connection within and across diverse settings.

Students interested in AYA licensure must major in an academic subject area and may need to complete additional courses specific to the content-area license.  During the initial semesters, students should plan to complete Core requirements.  Where possible they should take courses that simultaneously meet the requirements of the University Core, their major, and/or AYA or MA program requirements.  These program requirements are subject to change based on the SPAs and Ohio Department of Education requirements.
Integrated Language Arts (56 semester hours)
Integrated Social Studies (48 semester hours)
Chemistry/Physics (58 semester hours)
Life Science (48 semester hours)
Mathematics (36 semester hours)
Physical Science:  Physics/Chemistry (58 semester hours)
Physics (54 semester hours)
Chemistry (34-44 semester hours)

Multi-Age Licensure requirements
The curriculum and content courses of the Multi-Age License equip pre-service foreign language and physical education teachers with the capacities and commitments to be a professional across all ages, grounded in content knowledge, developmentally appropriate practices, and the ability to attend to individual differences and needs.
Foreign Language:  French (45 semester hours if course work begins at 100 level)
Foreign Language:  German (45 semester hours if course work begins at 100 level)
Foreign Language:  Latin (30 semester hours)
Foreign Language:  Spanish (45 semester hours if course work begins at 100 level)
Physical Education (48 semester hours)
Note:  1.   For the AYA and MA license, an overall GPA of 2.7 or higher must be maintained in content-area course work.
           2. For the AYA and MA license, undergraduate candidates who complete less than one-half of content-area course work at John Carroll will be required to pass PRAXIS II in the content area as a prerequisite for student teaching.
           3. For the AYA and MA license, post-baccalaureate candidates must pass PRAXIS II in the content area as a prerequisite for student teaching.

Admission to Teacher Education
Interested students must apply and be accepted into the teacher education program prior to registration in upper-division education courses.  An applicant must have taken, or be enrolled in, ED 100, 186, and 253 before, or at the time of, application for admission.  Students may not take any additional course work beyond ED 100, 186, and 253 unless they are formally admitted to teacher education.  Those accepted into the AYA or MA licensure program must also be accepted into a departmental major, e.g., history.

For undergraduates, application is typically made during the semester in which ED 253 is taken, usually in the sophomore year.  Application forms are available from the department office.  Post-baccalaureate students are evaluated at the time of admission to the Office of Graduate Studies of the College of Arts and Sciences and need not make a separate application.  An interview is required of all students, undergraduate and graduate.
Candidates for teacher education are evaluated by either the coordinator of Undergraduate Initial Licensure Programs or the coordinator of Graduate Initial Licensure Programs, in consultation with faculty and administrative staff, on the basis of the following criteria:

1. Faculty evaluation from instructors of ED 100, 186, 253
2. Formal essay
3. Interview to include:
    assessment of written and oral communication skills
    discussion of portfolio assignments from ED 100 and 186
    responses to interview questions
4. Signed statement of moral character
5. ACT/SAT scores
6. Academic record for:
    overall GPA
    education GPA
    content area GPA (MC, AYA, MA)
    Core GPA (EC)
7. Dispositions:  Evidence of behavior consistent with the following definition:  The values, commitments, and professional ethics that influence behaviors toward students, families, colleagues, and communities and affect student learning, motivation, and development as well as the educator’s own professional growth.  Dispositions are guided by beliefs and attitudes related to values such as caring, fairness, honesty, responsibility, and social justice.  For example, they might include a belief that all students can learn, a vision of high and challenging standards, or a commitment to a safe and supportive learning environment.
    (NCATE 2000 Standards, dated March 31, 2000, p. 34)

Admissions Criteria:

Accepted—Student may begin or continue work toward teacher licensure.
        Criteria

1. Favorable faculty recommendations
2. Academic Record:
  2.7 overall GPA
  2.7 education GPA based on ED 100 and 186 (possibly ED 253)
  2.7 content-area GPA (MC, AYA, MA)
  2.5 GPA Core classes, Division I – V (Early Childhood candidates only)
3. Basic skills proficiency:
  Math:  500 SAT or 20 ACT
  English: 500 SAT or 20 ACT
4. Dispositions:
  Evidence of dispositions for teaching as defined by NCATE
   

Accepted Conditionally—May continue work toward teacher licensure.
        Criteria

1. Favorable faculty recommendations
2. Academic Record:
  2.5 – 2.7 overall GPA
  2.0 – 2.7 education GPA based on ED 100 and 186
  2.5 – 2.7 content-area GPA for MC, AYA, MA only
  2.5 GPA Core classes, Division I – V (EC)
3. Basic skills proficiency:
  Same as accepted criteria
4. Dispositions:
  Evidence of dispositions for teaching as defined by NCATE
  Note:  Conditional acceptance may be given for one semester or one year.

        Defer—May not begin or continue work toward teacher licensure.
Appeal Process:

An applicant who is deferred may meet with the coordinator of Initial Licensure Programs or the coordinator of the Graduate Initial Licensure Programs to discuss concerns and establish an intervention plan, if possible. 

Applicants may be reconsidered at a later date, provided all the criteria for full or conditional acceptance are met and the student re-applies.

        Reject—Student is not eligible for admission to Teacher Education.

The Department of Education and Allied Studies reserves the right to alter (on a case-by-case basis) the admissions procedures for individual students in exceptional circumstances.

Due process is available to applicants who wish to appeal their classification.  First, applicants should discuss the matter with the advisor.  After this discussion, if applicants still wish to appeal, they should do so in writing to the coordinator of Initial Licensure Programs or the coordinator of the Graduate Initial Programs within two weeks of notification of classification.  The coordinator will respond within one week.  An appeal may be made to the department chair and the Teacher Education Committee for Admission and Retention.

Grade Policy for candidates majoring in education (EC or MC) or being licensed in AYA or MA:

  1. A grade of C or higher is required in all education courses.  A grade of C- or lower requires that the course be repeated.  The applicant should schedule a meeting with the coordinator of Undergraduate Initial Programs or the coordinator of Graduate Licensure Programs.
  2. A grade of C- or lower in a course in the teaching field or academic major will be reviewed by the coordinator of Undergraduate Initial Licensure Programs or the coordinator of Graduate Initial Licensure Programs and the chair of the major department to determine an appropriate course of action, e.g., repeat the course, substitute a course.
  3. A GPA of 2.7 is required throughout the programs for the overall GPA, Education GPA, and teaching content area for MC, AYA, MA.
  4. A GPA of 2.7 or higher is required in course work for the teaching content area for MC, AYA, MA.
  5. Early Child candidates must receive grades of C or higher in all curriculum-content course work for licensure, e.g., MT 171, AR 171, MT 160.
  6. A GPA of 2.5 in University Core courses is required for all Early Childhood candidates. 

Program Assessment Points
The licensure process has multiple assessment points for a candidate beginning with:

  1. Admission to the University.
  2. Application and acceptance into the Teacher Education program.
  3. Ongoing evaluation of the candidate’s academic course work, clinical and field experiences, and evidence of a disposition for the teaching profession.
  4. Acceptance into the Pre-Student Teaching semester, and placement in an intensive field-based experience with University supervision in preparation for Student Teaching.
  5. Admission to the Professional Semester for Student Teaching.
  6. Exit assessment for licensure, PRAXIS II.
  7. Entry-year PRAXIS III.

Professional Year
The professional year is a unique aspect of the professional development of pre-service candidates at John Carroll University.  All candidates participate in a full academic year clinical experience in one classroom for Pre-Student Teaching (first semester) and Student Teaching (second semester).  Pre-Student Teaching offers the opportunity to reflect, question, and continue with weekly experiences in a classroom that culminates in Student Teaching.  As a requirement of the Pre-Student Teaching and Student Teaching experiences, the candidates meet on a regular basis in conference with the cooperating teacher and university supervisor to discuss present teaching capacity, provide feedback on areas for improvement, and continue to address the development progression for becoming an educator.

Pre-Student Teaching
The candidate applies two semesters before the projected Student Teaching semester.  The candidate is evaluated based on:

  1. Course work
            A. GPAs
                 2.7 Overall
                 2.7 Education
                 2.7 Content areas for MC, AYA, MA
                 2.5 Division I-V Core courses for EC
            B.   All course work requirements have been completed or will be completed
                prior to student teaching.
  2. Faculty interviews
                Interview questions
                Candidate vita
                Candidate portfolio
  3. Faculty course evaluations
  4. Decisions
            Accept
            Accept Conditionally
            Defer
    The pre-student teacher is assigned a cooperating teacher(s) in the licensure and content areas.  In addition, a University supervisor is assigned to each pre-student teacher.  A candidate is recommended/not recommended by the cooperating teacher(s) and University supervisor to continue into the student teaching semester.

Student Teaching
During the pre-student teaching semester, each candidate applies for Student Teaching.  Approval is granted by the Council on Teacher Education and requires that the student has:

1. The following minimum GPAs:
  2.7 overall
  2.7 in Education courses
  2.7 in teaching content area(s) (MC, AYA, MA)
  2.5 Core (EC)
2. Completed all clinical and field requirements for each course.
3. Completed all course requirements, education and teaching content area(s).
4. Been recommended to continue into student teaching by the cooperating teacher and University supervisor.
5. Demonstrated a teaching style and behaviors that provide evidence of a disposition for the teaching profession.
6. Taken and passed the appropriate Praxis II exams if required, e.g., post-bac candidates, candidates who have completed more than one-half of content area course work at another institution.

Note:  A student is not guaranteed admission to the final professional semester because of acceptance into teacher education and completion of the requisite courses.

The Council on Teacher Education may waive requirements in exceptional cases.  In planning programs, candidates and advisors should be aware that student teaching is more demanding than a normal 9 hours of course work and therefore should schedule no more than the required 12 hours of education credit, including student teaching, during the professional semester.  Requests for more than 12 hours during student teaching must be submitted in writing to the Council on Teacher Education as part of the application for student teaching.

Note:  For undergraduates, ED 100, 186, 253, and formal acceptance into teacher education are prerequisites for all additional education courses.
100. INTRODUCTION TO EDUCATION 2 cr.  Prerequisite for admission to teacher education.  Emphasis on self-evaluation as a teacher.  Introduction to critical issues in education, the person as a teacher, criteria for effective teaching, and effective school settings.  Includes a field experience component.  Lab fee required.
186. INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGY 2 cr.  Prerequisite for admission to teacher education.  Principles and techniques of instructional design and use of technology in educational settings.  Includes examination of emerging technologies and production of instructional materials.  Lab fee required.
199. SPECIAL TOPICS 1-3 cr.  Occasional course on a selected topic announced in advance.
201. ASSESSMENT, LEARNING, AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES 3 cr.  Prerequisites:  ED 100, 186, 253, and formal admission to teacher education.  Principles and procedures of formal and informal assessment of learners for the purposes of planning and practicing instruction, with an emphasis on inquiry.   Consideration of student differences (i.e., culture, cognitive differences, and exceptionalities) and how such differences affect assessment, motivation, and learning.  Prerequisite to PS 261 or 262 for education majors.
224. INTRODUCTION TO EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION 3 cr.  Foundations of Early Childhood education examined from a historical perspective.  Focus on the history of early child education, present models of early child practice, and the impact of evidence-based research on developmentally appropriate practice in current educational environments.
225. OBSERVATIONAL ASSESSMENT OF THE YOUNG CHILD 3 cr.  Corequisite:  ED 225E; prerequisites:  ED 100, 186, 253; and formal admission to teacher education and Early Child licensure.  Understanding child development, birth through age 8, in the contexts of family, educational environments, culture, and society.  Inquiry techniques for observing, recording, and assessing development along dimensions of social, emotional, psychological, and physical development.  Examines approaches to learning in connection with intra- and inter-individual patterns of growth.  Fieldwork expected involving interactions with children, staff, and parents in inclusive, diverse preschool settings.
225E. SEMINAR I: FOCUS ON FAMILY ECOLOGY 3 cr.  Corequisite:  ED 225.  Integrates learning theory with observational assessments for examination of external and internal factors that influence family dynamics and impact child growth and development.  Topics include demographic shifts in family composition; cultural and social differences in parental values, beliefs, and attendant practices; school and community supports for family and children; ethical concerns and professional responsibility in family-school relationships.  Includes a field experience component.
253. SCHOOL AND SOCIETY 3 cr.  Prerequisite for admission to teacher education.  Foundations of education examined through historical, sociological, and philosophical perspectives to provide a comprehensive understanding of American education and related educational issues in a diverse society.
255. LITERACY ACROSS THE CURRICULUM 3 cr.  Prerequisites:  ED 100, 186, 253, and formal admission to teacher education.  Literacy development examined through psychological, sociocultural, and historical perspectives.  Examines reading as an interactive, problem-solving process.  Strategies that foster critical thinking, active engagement, and social interaction in the teaching of reading and writing across the curriculum.  Includes field experience.  Field assignments related to licensure and content area.
325. LEARNING ACROSS THE EARLY CHILDHOOD YEARS 3 cr.  Prerequisites:  ED 100, 186, 225, 225E, 253, and formal admission to teacher education and Early Child licensure.  Supervised opportunities to integrate theory and practice in inclusive and diverse preschool and school settings.  Assessment-based teaching approaches that consider developmental, cultural, linguistic, and social differences and foster active learning, independence, and positive relationships.
330. MIDDLE CHILDHOOD EDUCATION PHILOSOPHY AND INSTRUCTION 3 cr.  Prerequisites:  ED 100, 186, 253:  prerequisite or corequisite:  PS 262; and formal admission to teacher education and Middle Child licensure.  Historical development, goals, philosophy, and mission of middle-grades education.  Planning and managing, developmentally and culturally responsive instruction, and the use of organizational elements, such as interdisciplinary team, flexible scheduling, and grouping.  Includes middle-grades field experience.
331. INTEGRATED LEARNING IN PRESCHOOL 3 cr.  Prerequisite:  ED 325; corequisites:  ED 332 and acceptance into pre-student teaching.  In-depth examination of early-childhood practices and curricula in mathematics, science, language and literacy, health, safety, nutrition, social studies, art, music, drama, and movement.  Presents content and instructional methods and materials for integrated approaches to learning in the preschool years, emphasizing the role of play in concept development, problem solving, and skill development.  Fieldwork in inclusive diverse settings.
332. INTEGRATED LEARNING IN THE EARLY ELEMENTARY YEARS 3 cr.  Prerequisite:  ED 325; corequisites:  ED 331 and acceptance into pre-student teaching.  In-depth examination of early-childhood practices and curricula.  Presents content and instructional methods and materials for integrated approaches to learning in grades kindergarten through third.  Emphasizes active engagement and positive interactions in concept development, problem solving, and skill development.  Fieldwork in inclusive, diverse settings.
337. ADOLESCENT EDUCATION SPECIAL METHODS 3 cr.  Prerequisites:  ED 100, 186, 253, and formal acceptance into teacher education.  Prerequisite for ED 427 and admission to Pre-Student Teaching.  For Adolescent and Multi-Age licensure program students.  General methods and specific content-area methods for planning, implementing, and integrating curriculum, evaluating pupil achievement, and teaching to individual differences.  Aligned with Ohio Department of Education’s Competency-Based Models, PRAXIS II, INTASC, and Learned Society Guidelines.  Emphasis given to strategies related to effective teaching and learning in each licensure content area.  Additional emphasis placed on nurturing a risk-taking classroom community responsive both to high standards of performance and to students with diverse backgrounds, abilities, and learning styles.
350. MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION IN A PLURALISTIC SOCIETY 3 cr.  Cultural, racial, ethnic, socioeconomic, gender, and individual differences and their effects on American education and society studied from sociological, historical, and philosophical perspectives.  Development of human-relations skills to address diversity issues.
355. LANGUAGE STUDY AND PHONICS 3 cr.  Prerequisite or corequisite: ED 255.  Examines language development in various stages across the life span.  Language development with focus on the grapho-phonemic, syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic systems as they relate to literacy instruction.  Examination of relevant issues such as literacy development, metalinguistic awareness, phonemic awareness, and discoveries pattern.  Includes field experience.
356. LITERATURE FOR CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS 3 cr.  Critical analysis of various genres of literature for children and adolescents with attention to multicultural literature and the relevance of literature across all disciplines.  Required for students in the Middle Childhood language-arts content area.
357. ADOLESCENT LITERATURE 3 cr.  Critical analysis of the genres of adolescent literature with emphasis on major authors.  Themes related to intellectual, social, cultural, and political issues, and the role of adolescent literature in the traditional language-arts curriculum.  Required for students in AYA Integrated Language Arts Licensure.
380. SPECIAL PROJECTS OR FIELDWORK PLACEMENT 1-3 cr. each semester.  Departmental approval required.  Special fieldwork placements for teacher licensure students.
386. EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY 3 cr. Prerequisite: formal acceptance into the teacher education program; corequisite:  ED 325, ED 330, or ED 337.  Theories and practical techniques concerning technology in educational contexts. Includes exploration of emerging technologies and selection, production, and integration of educational materials.  Lab fee required.
405A. SEMINAR III:  INTEGRATING FAMILY, SCHOOL, AND COMMUNITY ECOLOGIES 3 cr.  Corequisites:  ED 444A and admission to the professional semester.  Integrates entire preservice preparation.  Draws on field experiences, course work in education, philosophy, psychology, and sociology in further exploring topics related to early-childhood education toward developing a coherent model of teaching children ages 3-8.
405B. MIDDLE CHILDHOOD EDUCATION SEMINAR 3 cr.  Corequisites:  ED 444B and admission to the professional semester.  Middle-grade teacher’s role of providing academic, social, career, and personal advisement to young adolescents as well as working collaboratively with colleges, families, resource persons, and community groups.  Understanding the role of activity programs and their place in a middle-grade curriculum.
405C. ADOLESCENT EDUCATION SEMINAR 3 cr.  Corequisites:  ED 444C and admission to the professional semester.  Continued study of adolescent development, learner achievement, and assessment.  Integrates program learning with student teaching experience.  Development of the professional portfolio and preparation for job interviewing.
405D. MULTI-AGE EDUCATION SEMINAR 3 cr.  Corequisites:  ED 444D and admission to the professional semester.  Continued study of all-grades development, learner achievement, and assessment.  Integrates program learning with student teaching experience.   Development of the professional portfolio and preparation for job interviewing.
415. EDUCATIONAL PROCEDURES FOR THE EXCEPTIONAL CHILD 3 cr.  Formation of skills in curriculum development, grouping, special procedures, planning, educational diagnosis, and other techniques suitable for working with a specified population of exceptional children.  Requires work with students and parents in field settings.
424. SPECIAL TOPICS:  MIDDLE CHILDHOOD CURRICULUM AND CONTENT METHOD 4 cr. Prerequisites: ED 330 and acceptance into pre-student teaching.  Specific content-area methods for planning, implementing, and integrating curriculum, assessing student achievement, and teaching to individual differences.  Taken concurrently with pre-student teaching.
427. ADOLESCENT EDUCATION SPECIAL TOPICS 3 cr.  Prerequisites:  ED 337 and acceptance into pre-student teaching.  Practical application of issues to pre-student teaching field setting.  Taken by adolescent licensure program students the semester preceding student teaching.  Issues of conflict negotiation, social justice, curriculum development, and school reform as they relate to the secondary school setting.
444A. DIRECTED TEACHINGS IN EARLY CHILDHOOD SETTING 9 cr. Corequisites:  ED 405A and admission to the professional semester.  Develops the special knowledge and competencies required of pre-K to 3rd grade teachers through observation and teaching in early-childhood settings and classrooms under the joint supervision of University and school personnel.  Requires a full-time, full-semester placement at an early-child setting.  Lab fee required.
444B. MIDDLE CHILDHOOD EDUCATION STUDENT TEACHING 9 cr.  Corequisites: ED 405B and admission to the professional semester.  Full-time student teaching in a middle-grade setting under the supervision of a qualified teacher and a University supervisor.  Lab fee required.
444C. ADOLESCENT STUDENT TEACHING 9 cr.  Corequisites:  ED 405C and admission to the professional semester.  A full-day full semester of teaching in an accredited secondary school under the direction of a classroom teacher qualified in the content area and a University supervisor.  Supervision includes personnel with advanced training in the relevant content area.  Lab fee required.
444D. MULTI-AGE STUDENT TEACHING 9 cr.  Corequisites:  ED 405D and admission to the professional semester.  A full-day full semester of teaching in an accredited secondary school under the direction of a classroom teacher qualified in the content area and a University supervisor.  Supervision includes personnel with advanced training in the relevant content areas.  Lab fee required.
456. READING ASSESSMENT AND INTERVENTION 3 cr.  Prerequisites and/or corequisites:  ED 255 and 355.  Gaining familiarity with formal and informal tools for assessing literacy development with emphasis on planning, implementing, and evaluating intervention strategies.  Includes field experience.
457. METHODS IN READING EDUCATION (455) 3 cr.  Prerequisites:  ED 255, 355, 456.  Practicum experience that includes advanced examination of various reading methods and techniques for instructional planning and development of intervention plans based on assessment and diagnosis of reading abilities.  Site-based course.  Includes tutoring within a practicum setting.
480. SPECIAL TOPICS 1-6 cr. Departmental approval required.  In-depth study of topic in workshop form or as an individual project under supervision.

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