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Preparation for Graduate & Professional Study
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Preparation for Graduate & Professional Study

Medicine
The requirements of medical schools are summarized in Admission Requirements of American Medical Colleges, published annually by the Association of American Medical Colleges.  Applicants for medical school must take the Medical College Admission Test.  Since this test is usually taken in late spring of the junior year, premedical students should have completed or be completing the basic requirements for medical school by that time.  Those requirements are generally one year each of general chemistry, organic chemistry, physics, and biology, with labs, and one year of college-level math.  They are usually fulfilled at John Carroll by taking CH 141-144 and 221-224; PH 125, 125L, 126, and 126L; BL 155-158; and MT 135-136 (MT 228 may be substituted for MT 136).  A bachelor’s degree is almost invariably required.

Graduate and Professional Study
John Carroll also participates in a program for premedical students. The MEDStart Program, offered by the University of Toledo College of Medicine, is an early-decision program for John Carroll first-semester juniors.  Details are available on the John Carroll website (www.jcu.edu/prehealth) or from the coordinator of Pre-Health Professions Studies.

Dentistry
The Council on Dental Education of the American Dental Association lists the minimum educational requirements for admission to a dental school as follows:  (1) Students must successfully complete two full years of study in an accredited liberal arts college.  (2) In most states, the basic requirements of predental education are the same as those of premedical education noted above.  Those requirements are generally one year each of general chemistry, organic chemistry, physics, biology, and math.  They are usually fulfilled at John Carroll by taking CH 141-144 and 221-224; PH 125, 125L, 126, 126L; BL 155-158; and MT 135-136.  (3) Students must complete a minimum of 64 credit hours from liberal or general education courses, such as English, communications, behavioral sciences, philosophy, and religious studies, which give breadth to their educational background.  Applicants must take the Dental Aptitude Test.  This test is usually administered in late spring of the junior year, by which time the basic predental requirements should be completed.  Admission to schools of dentistry with only two or three years of undergraduate education is the exception rather than the rule.

In addition to medicine and dentistry, there are a number of other careers available in healthcare delivery.  Students are encouraged to explore such fields as podiatry, physical therapy, occupational therapy, nursing, optometry, veterinary medicine, physician assistant, and pharmacy.  Most of these occupations require a baccalaureate degree with additional education at the graduate level.  Information and advising are available from the coordinator of Pre-Health Professions Studies.

Pharmacy
A pre-pharmacy advisor is available to assist students interested in applying to pharmacy graduate programs.  For further information, please see Dr. David Mascotti, Department of Chemistry (dmascotti@jcu.edu).  He can help guide curriculum choices, graduate program selections, and career opportunities in pharmacy.

Most pre-pharmacy students will follow a course of study that begins with fundamentals of chemistry and biology.  Most graduate programs also require students to take the Pharmacy College Admission Test (PCAT).  Admission requirements differ for various graduate programs; therefore, specific advanced courses will be determined based on the graduate program to which the student intends to apply.  These programs are very competitive and rigorous in nature, and thus require a high academic standing and PCAT score for consideration.

Law
A pre-law advisor is available to guide students interested in pursuing the study of law upon graduation.  For further information, please see Dr. Elizabeth Swenson, Department of Psychology (swenson@jcu.edu).
Any major can be a suitable preparation for a career in law, especially when combined with carefully chosen courses outside the major field.  Students interested in law school are especially urged to consider double majors, a minor, or a concentration that complements the major field of study.

A broad background of knowledge, which is obtained through the University Core Curriculum in the Liberal Arts, and a major in some specific field are required for the study of law.  In addition, certain skills are important in learning and practicing law.  These skills include the ability to speak and write effectively, to organize and absorb large amounts of information, to read carefully and critically, to analyze and evaluate complex issues, and to deal with problems creatively.  Also important is knowledge of the social, political, and economic structure of society and an understanding of the human values of this structure.

The pre-law advisor can also give advice on admission to law schools, on the choice of a career in the legal profession, and on the construction and content of a personal statement.  In addition to the undergraduate degree, law schools require students to take the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) and to apply through the Law School Data Assembly Service (LSDAS).  Forms for both of these are available from the pre-law advisor.
Admission to law school is based on high academic standing, a correspondingly high score on the LSAT, and recommendations from faculty and others who are familiar with the applicant’s character, academic preparation, and aptitude for law school.  Extracurricular activities, part-time employment, and special achievements also play a role.

Ohio CPA Certificate
Certified public accountants should have a broad background of both liberal and professional education.  The experience of alumni of the Boler School of Business indicates that the major in accountancy provides excellent preparation for the Ohio CPA examination.

The certificate is granted by the State Board of Accountancy in accordance with the Ohio Revised Code.  The current educational requirement for the CPA certificate is graduation with a baccalaureate or higher degree that includes successful completion of 150 semester hours of college-level credit or the satisfaction of alternate prequalification options.  In addition to 30 hours of accountancy, candidates must complete course work in such areas as ethics, business communications, economics, finance, marketing, quantitative applications, and business law.  Students should discuss the available options with a member of the Department of Accountancy.
In addition to this educational requirement, candidates for the CPA certificate must (a) pass a written examination in accounting, auditing, and in other related subjects; and (b) have public accounting experiences satisfactory to the board.

Students who wish to prepare for CPA certificates awarded by states other than Ohio should discuss their situation and academic programs with members of the Department of Accountancy.

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