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Backward Design: A pedagogical approach where a teacher designs instruction around goals, not assignments. Rather than create assignments first, instructors identify course goals and then design assignments to support those goals. Online Writing Instruction (OWI) - The practice of teaching writing in online, hybrid, and remote environments within specific pedagogical theories and best practices. Online Classes: Can feature both remote and online instruction, but online classes usually do not have synchronous components. Students complete work on their own time, often without the use of required, synchronous meetings. Remote Classes: Like a face-to-face class, only instructors and students attend virtually, via appropriate collaboration software. Virtual attendance is required. Flipped Class: Students work individually to gain exposure to new material, then use class meetings to complete higher forms of cognitive work such as application, problem-solving, debate, synthesis, etc. For additional information, see Berrett, “How ‘flipping’ the classroom can improve the traditional lecture.” Hybrid/Blended: Some online work is done independently, then regular, face-to- face (F2F) required class meetings are held. Instructors often use the “flipped” class under this model. Asynchronous: Students work at their own pace, on their own time to meet course objectives. (What most of us think of a fully “online” course). Synchronous: Class meets via collaborative software (i.e. Canvas, Zoom, Blackboard, etc.) at the same time. We typically see this in “remote” classes. HyFlex: This term comes from a blend of “Hybrid” and “Flexibility.” A pedagogical model where instruction and course content are offered both F2F (or remotely) and in an online format. Students may choose to utilize both options during the course. Example: Students may work independently on class assignments and then meet F2F/remotely with the instructor and peers for F2F interaction.

Universal Design: The pedagogical practice of designing elements of the course so that they are accessible to all. Examples – Using font size and bolding, underlining, etc. instead of color to emphasize points, or enabling closed- captioning for all videos, etc.